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Cataphoric & Anaphoric

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  • Cataphoric & Anaphoric

    In linguistics, cataphorais used to describe an expression that co-refers with a later expression in the discourse. That is to say, the earlier expression refers to or describes a forward expression. For example, given: "Finding the right gadget was a real hassle. I finally settled with a digital camera." The "right gadget" is an instance of cataphora because it refers to "a digital camera," an object that hasn't been mentioned in the discourse prior to that point. Cataphora is a type of endophora and it is the opposite of anaphora, a reference forward as opposed to backward in the discourse.


    The use of a linguistic unit, such as a pronoun, to refer ahead to another unit, for example, the use of him to refer to John in the sentence Near him, John saw a snake
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    In linguistics, anaphora(pronounced /əˈnæfərə/) is an instance of an expression referring to another.


    In general, an anaphoric expression is represented by a pro-form or some kind of deictic.


    In some theories, the strict definition of anaphora includes only references to preceding utterances. A preceding utterance can be anything, such as a noun. Under this definition, forward references (where the cataphoric expression refers to a succeeding utterance) are instead named cataphora, and both effects together are endophora. Also, the term exophora names situations where the referent does not appear in the utterances of the speaker, but instead in the real world. Some linguists prefer to define anaphora generically to include all of these referential effects.
    Eg. John is a good student, so he passed the exam.
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